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Everything You Need to Know About Limestone

12 June 2024

Everything You Need to Know About Limestone

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What is Limestone?

Formation: Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that consists mainly of Calcium Carbonate.  It occurs from the depositional process through which calcium carbonate is obtained from marine organisms like coral and mollusk shells or directly from the sea through sedimentation. However, over millions of years, these deposits accumulate on the flat and interconnect to become compact and rigid structures that we refer to as Limestones.

Characteristics:

Colour: Limestone ranges from light to dark grey and white to black, depending on the mineral impurities.

Texture: It has a homogenous appearance with a fine grain structure, though it can exhibit an array of surface textures, from smooth finishes to rustic ones.

Porosity: Limestone is less dense than some of the other types of stone that are out there. It has pores in it that allow it to take on water and other liquids.

Why is Limestone Good for Building?

Limestone’s suitability for building stems from several key factors that contribute to its popularity in construction projects. Here are some of them:

Workability: It is not as hard as other stone materials such as Granite and Marble and creates a suitable backyard surface when polished. This workability makes it highly versatile and suitable for intricate architectural details, ornate sculptures, and decorative elements. Builders and artisans appreciate its malleability, which allows for precise customisation and fine craftsmanship.

Thermal Properties: Limestone, as mentioned above, has unique characteristics that can insulate the facade of buildings. It can trap heat during the cold seasons and still not heat up in the warmer seasons.

Longevity: Limestone is also well known for its durability, and this fact is evident in many historical monuments. Limestone has a long-wearing capability against the forces of nature, such as weathering and erosion.

Aesthetic Flexibility: Limestone provides a broad spectrum of tactility and surface treatments which gives designers great freedom in their architectural projects. Be it in architectural influences of historical styles or modern design. Limestone is versatile and can easily blend into the architectural design of any given project.

What are the Advantages of Limestone?

Limestone is a natural stone that has numerous advantages that enhance its applicability in most demands of residential and commercial projects.

Aesthetic Appeal

Limestone has been valued for beauty in buildings and structures for ages. It is available in different colours like shades of beige, white and grey, which makes the material highly versatile in terms of design choices.  Limestone floors, whether installed in a contemporary or a more traditional design, provide a practical solution. It also creates an aesthetically beautiful addition to homeowners’ floors, walls, counter and outdoor areas. The soft colour, ranging from beige to different shades, contributes to creating a welcoming space.

Durability

Limestone is a strong material that withstands heavy usage. When taken care of properly, Limestone will stay for many decades, thus making your home investment more economical. Some types of Limestone used outdoors are highly resistant to weathering. This implies that they can tolerate rain, wind, and temperature changes for a long time without depreciating rapidly.

Versatility

Limestone’s malleability, or flexibility, is without a doubt one of its biggest strengths. It is versatile and can be applied in areas such as floorings, walls, countertops, patios, paving, garden paths and pool coping.  This versatility extends to its finishes as well. Limestone can be polished for a sleek, refined look or left in its natural state for a more rustic, textured appearance.

Eco-Friendly

The use of Limestone also demonstrates higher environmental friendliness compared to other materials. The raw materials derived from the quarries are not produced using refining or involving a lot of energy. Furthermore, Limestone is reusable, which means that it can be recycled and this will help in the fight against waste. Limestone is advantageous as it lowers the carbon footprint of construction works and the utilisation of sustainable construction products.

Hypoallergenic Properties

Limestone’s non-porous surface makes it an excellent choice for households with allergy sufferers. Meanwhile, carpets and any other floor materials are bound to collect dust, pollen, and any other allergens within the home environment. Limestone is easy to clean and maintain since it has a smooth surface.

Slip Resistance

This material does not pose a high risk of slipping, and thus, it can be used in indoor and outdoor designs. This slip resistance is mostly useful in areas that are susceptible to wetness, like showers, sinks, swimming pools and decks. Some kinds of Limestone have a rough outer layer that gives a better grip to the surface which would decrease the incidents of slips and fall cases.

Environmental Friendliness

Limestone requires no elaborate processing or synthetic chemicals; this makes it an eco-friendly option. It is abundant and can be found locally in many areas, leading to reduced transportation emissions and supporting local economies.

Thermal Properties

This makes Limestone a good material for temperature regulation in buildings, especially residential ones. In summer, it remains cool, while in winter, it can keep heat, hence improving energy efficiency in your building.

Increased Value

One method through which people raise the value of their assets is by installing High-quality materials during construction. Its luxurious look and durability make it an attractive feature that will attract potential buyers.

What Type of Limestone Do We Have at Stone Centre?

At Stone Centre, we have Limestones available in different forms.

Pavers: Limestone pavers are mostly the ones that are used for outdoor space. It is thicker than tiles. It ranges from 30mm to above. Some of the paver’s measurements that we offer are 610x406x30mm and French Pattern 30mm.

Tiles:  Tiles are generally used for indoor flooring or walling. They have a thickness of 12mm. Some of the tile measurements that we offer are 610x406x12mm, 610x610x12mm and French Pattern 12mm.

Pool Coping: Pool coping is used for the edge of any swimming pool. Here are the ones that we offer: 610x406x30mm Bullnose, 610x406x40/20mm Drop Edge and 610x406x70/30mm Bullnose.

Risers: We have just one particular sizing for the same, 1220x170x20mm.

Depending on your design needs, all of these forms can be customised. For more info contact our sales specialist.

Our Range of Limestone Tiles and Pavers

Indiana White

The Indiana White Limestone provides relaxation to the exteriors and gives a touch of sophistication. The piece has a clean and natural colour that matches most design schemes, from sophisticated contemporary to country chic. It is smooth, with only minor textures combined with natural grain, and it gives a glimpse of sophistication when used on the patios, pool area, and courtyard.

This Indiana White Limestone is strong, resistant to foot traffic, rain, snow and sunlight, among other factors. Proper sealing of the appliance and proper maintenance keep it as good as new for as many years as possible.

Navona Limestone

The Navona Limestone, also referred to as the Capri White Limestone brings in a smooth and elegant appearance to portray the classics and serenity of the outdoor world. It is known for its pale white appearance and rustic feel. The material draws the viewer in with its shabby-chic aesthetic. Notably, this Limestone is relatively workable and beautiful, besides being hard-wearing such that it can last for years. We recommend it for hall areas, fireplaces, walls and floors. It brings extra class and calmness to the environment.

Tandur Grey Limestone

Tandur Grey Limestone is classic and has that old-world charm associated with traditional stones. One more advantage of its graphite colouration, stippled with light shades, is that on any surface it imparts vivacity and dynamism. The combination of aged grey, creamy white, darker grey and Ivory produces an outstanding aesthetic about the outdoors making them look stunning. Its weather resistance and ability to withstand chemicals and other elements. It is an easy-to-maintain material, which would suit those who wish to go for the conventional and conservative look of their houses.

Midnight Glow Limestone

Midnight Glow Limestone can be of great advantage in improving the outlook of your outdoor areas, complemented by its capacity to boost the value of your home. This material has incredible density and does not wear out easily. It is suitable for use as a border in gardening, as walls, pathways, or anything that may require construction in any outdoor setting. In essence, this stone is one-of-a-kind, and it will give your home that classic look that will last for ages and increase its value. It is also versatile and can be recycled for creating paving, contributing to a cleaner environment, and is considered the best option available.

Oglio Limestone

Oglio Limestone can be noted as being an ideal choice in the process of completing any project. Complementing it is the fact that its colour is a medium-dark grey and has a non-glossy finish that gives every surface of the furniture an industrial look that adds a rustic appeal to any particular space it occupies. The use of Oglio Limestoneo guarantees that your project will retain its beauty for quite a long time now.

Creme Nuova Limestone

The Crema Nuova Limestone is a pastel collection with an additional cream grey and speckles of white which makes it look unique. This stone gives a stunning look on surfaces with black hues accentuating more.  It has a very smooth surface finish and it is generally good for indoor tiles, bathroom tiles and wall tiles as well. Crema Nuova Limestone makes the environment warmer and more friendly.

Where Can We Use Limestone?

Flooring

Limestone tiles can be used for various applications especially in kitchens, bathrooms, aisles, and living spaces because of their aesthetic values and strength. Being among the hardest surfaces that are resistant to wear and tear, they can easily handle intense foot traffic and radiate a timeless style with a range of colours and surfaces. Adding Limestone to your outdoor flooring will create elegant, functional, and long-lasting spaces that will enhance the value and enjoyment of your home.

Wall Cladding

Wall cladding involves applying Limestone veneer to solid walls and facades for internal and external applications. In places like indoors, it can give an added touch in the living room, entry, or even in bathrooms. As for the outdoor area, it gives the house’s exterior surface a beautiful look. It is also non-hazardous and can help with energy efficiency; as a result, places that have a lot of Limestone include a lot of insulation.

Countertops

It is not a secret that Limestone is exotic-looking and rather natural in appearance. Every single piece of stone will be different from another. Although it is a strong, dense material, it is slightly less hardy than Granite, the toughest natural stone.  It can easily show scratches and chips. This makes it vulnerable to staining especially if it has not been sealed, in such a case it ought to be resealed.

Paving

Limestone has become a preferred material for paving layouts because of its natural appearance, resilience and non-slip characteristics. Suitable for patios, pathways, and driveways. It is resistant to the outdoor environment, as well as the elements. To avoid moving or cracking, one needs to install them correctly, ensure proper care and reseal them whenever necessary.

Pool Coping

Swimming pool coping is a material used to cap the walls of the swimming pool shell. Its slip-resistant features and beauty make Limestone ideal for pool coping. Additionally, there will be a smooth edge around the pool, providing a smooth surface to sit on and preventing slips and falls.  Limestone is also known to be light-coloured and this can also aid in reducing heat influx in the particular area during the day.

Fireplaces

Limestone fireplace surrounds are a pleasant touch in any house and are resistant to heat as they enhance the beauty of a room with class and style, making it timeless. It is a popular type of natural stone that many owners decide to use, simply because of its warm and attractive character and many people like to use it as a fireplace for living, dining or bedroom.

Staircases

The Limestone staircases are suitable for both the functionality of stairs and the beauty. It provides a natural look that is more befitting to interior design. Employing the Limestone for the steps and risers will maintain consistency in the design. This is why it becomes paramount that a textured finish is applied to avoid slipping and that installation is done firmly to support these amenities.

Patios and Terraces

Limestone tiles create a sophisticated and durable surface for outdoor patios and terraces. They provide a comfortable and stylish area for entertaining guests, dining, or relaxing outdoors. Limestone tiles provide a comfortable surface for outdoor living areas. Their natural ability to remain relatively cool under the sun makes them pleasant to walk on barefoot, which is particularly beneficial in hot climates.

Driveways

Limestone driveways are a popular choice due to their durability, aesthetic appeal and practical benefits. Limestone is a robust material that can handle heavy traffic and is available in various colours and sizes, allowing for a customised look that enhances the visual appeal of your home. It’s also low maintenance, requiring only occasional sweeping and washing. Additionally, crushed Limestone offers excellent drainage, reducing the risk of water pooling and ice formation. Compared to other materials like concrete or asphalt, Limestone is often more affordable, especially if sourced locally. Overall, Limestone is a cost-effective and attractive option for driveway flooring.

Factors To Keep in Mind While Using Limestone

Here are a few things that you need to Consider When Using Limestone:

  1. Type & Quality: There are many types of Limestone available, such as Travertine, each with a unique hardness and porosity. Choose the type that best suits your project’s requirements. Opt for higher-quality Limestone for greater durability and fewer natural flaws.

  2. Porosity: Limestone can easily absorb liquids and stains. It’s crucial to seal Limestone surfaces, especially in areas like kitchens and bathrooms. In these areas, spills and moisture are more likely to occur.

  3. Colour and Finish: Limestone offers a wide range of options. It comes in various colours, from light beige and cream to darker shades like blue and grey. For finishes, you can go for polished, honed (matte), or tumbled (rustic). This depends on your design preferences. The goal is to find a colour and finish that perfectly complements your aesthetic.

  4. Climate Suitability: If you’re planning to use Limestone outdoors, consider climatic conditions in regions with freeze-thaw cycles. It’s important to choose denser Limestone. It can handle temperature changes without cracking.

  5. Load-bearing Capacity:  If using Limestone for flooring, be sure it can handle the expected load. Thicker and denser stones are optimal for High-traffic areas or places where heavy objects might be placed.

Limestone Maintenance Tips

Regular Cleaning: Clean Limestone surfaces regularly with pH-neutral cleaner and a soft cloth or mop. Avoid acidic or abrasive cleaners as they can damage stone. For outdoor surfaces use hose spray.

Sealing: Apply high-quality sealer to Limestone surfaces. This will protect them from stains and moisture. The frequency of sealing depends on usage and exposure. Typically indoor surfaces need sealing every 1-2 years. Outdoor surfaces might require more frequent sealing.

Avoiding Scratches: Use rugs or mats in high-traffic areas to protect Limestone floors from scratches. Lift furniture and other heavy objects instead of dragging them on the surface.

Immediate Spill Cleanup: Clean up spills immediately to prevent staining. Blot spill with a soft cloth rather than wiping. This avoids spreading it.

Professional Maintenance: Periodically hire a professional to inspect and maintain your Limestone surfaces. Professionals can perform deep cleaning. They will also reseal and repair damages effectively.

Step-by-Step Process of Limestone Installation

  1. Preparation: Take measurements and prepare the area of installation. Ensure the surface is clean, flat and strong. Clear away any old flooring or debris.

  2. Layout Planning: The plan should consider some patterns or designs to be used in the Limestone setting. Dry lay the stones to fix them and change their positions where necessary.

  3. Substrate Preparation: Depending on the installation surface, like concrete base or cement backer board, a suitable substrate, such as a concrete base or cement backer board may be required. This provides a stable foundation for the Limestone.

  4. Applying Adhesive: Use good quality stone adhesive to fix the pieces of Limestone together. Mix and apply according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Apply even amounts of adhesive with a notched trowel.

  5. Laying the Limestone: Lay down Limestone pieces carefully by pressing them into adhesive tightly. Spacers will ensure uniform gaps as well as avoidance of diagonals which are misaligned

  6. Grouting: Use grout on joints once adhesive has dried (typically 24 hours). Press grout into gaps using a rubber float while removing excess grout with a damp sponge.

  7. Sealing: After three days of curing time for grout, high-quality sealer must be applied to protect Limestone from stains and moisture. The best application technique depends on each product’s guidelines.

  8. Final Cleaning: Clean the surface for any left-behind substances. If desired, polish the surface to a slick finish.

Why Limestone Sealing is Important?

Stain Prevention: Sealing helps prevent spills and dirt from causing stains on your stone. Any liquid that is not sealed may easily get absorbed by Limestone, leading to permanent staining.

Protection Against Moisture: After sealing is done, the porosity of the stone decreases thus protecting it from water damage and freezing and thawing effects which can lead to cracking and spalling.

Ease of Cleaning: Cleaning and maintaining such surfaces becomes easier after they have been sealed. Regular cleaning becomes more effective as dirt and grime are less likely to penetrate the rock.

Increased Lifespan: Limestone’s use can be prolonged by sealing hence reducing its tear and wear. It also assists in keeping the appearance and structural integrity of the stone over time.

Improved appearance: Maintaining natural colours with patterns intact, sealing can keep Limestone looking bright while preserving its like-new vitality. Moreover, it might grant a little luster to enhance the visual aspect of this stone.

What is the Average Cost of Limestone Pavers and Tiles?

  1. The average Limestone cost, be it for pavers or tiles, is measured in mm, that is, meter squared. It varies depending on the following aspects:

  2. Colour

  3. Thickness of the pavers or tiles

  4. Grade, i.e. is it Premium, Commercial or Standard

  5. Additional supplies like grout and adhesive are not included in the price per m2.

Here are a few more blogs that will help you to learn more about Limestone Pavers and Tiles:

Limestone vs Sandstone: A Comparison guide

Exploring the History and Beauty of French Pattern Limestone

The Timeless Charm of Limestone Crazy Paving: A Perfect Blend of Nature and Artistry

6 Ideas to Transform your Home with Limestone Pavers

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